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Bangalore Through the Centuries. Historical Publications. Alvin F. Martin, Audrey N. Archived PDF from the original on 1 July Language, religion and politics in North India. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse. Archived from the original PDF on 15 September Retrieved 5 December Journal of Pragmatics.
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Asterisks mark the estimates Archived 11 November at the Wayback Machine for the top dozen languages. Urdu Evolution and Reforms. On this there are far more reliable statistics than those on population. Farhang-e-Asafiya is by general agreement the most reliable Urdu dictionary. It twas compiled in the late nineteenth century by an Indian scholar little exposed to British or Orientalist scholarship.
The lexicographer in question, Syed Ahmed Dehlavi, had no desire to sunder Urdu's relationship with Farsi, as is evident even from the title of his dictionary. He estimates that roughly 75 per cent of the total stock of 55, Urdu words that he compiled in his dictionary are derived from Sanskrit and Prakrit, and that the entire stock of the base words of the language, without exception, are derived from these sources. What distinguishes Urdu from a great many other Indian languauges Most of the little it takes from Arabic has not come directly but through Farsi.
Hindu Pasts: Women, Religion, Histories. SUNY Press. On the issue of vocabulary, Ahmad goes on to cite Syed Ahmad Dehlavi as he set about to compile the Farhang-e-Asafiya, an Urdu dictionary, in the late nineteenth century. Syed Ahmad 'had no desire to sunder Urdu's relationship with Farsi, as is evident from the title of his dictionary. He estimates that roughly 75 per cent of the total stock of As Ahmad points out, Syed Ahmad, as a member of Delhi's aristocratic elite, had a clear bias towards Persian and Arabic.
His estimate of the percentage of Prakitic words in urdu should therefore be considered more conservative than not. The actual proportion of Prakitic words in everyday language would clearly be much higher. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 24 September Retrieved 5 July So it is an Indo-Aryan language which is a branch of Indo-Iranian family, which in turn is a branch of Indo-European family of languages.
They developed into Prakrit and Apbhransh, which served as the basis for the formation of later local dialects.
All verbs in Urdu are of Sanskrit origin. According to lexicographers, only about 25 percent words in Urdu diction have Persian or Arabic origin. Brill Academic Publishers. Whilst the Muhammadan rulers of India spoke Persian, which enjoyed the prestige of being their court language, the common language of the country continued to be Hindi, derived through Prakrit from Sanskrit.
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On this dialect of the common people was grafted the Persian language, which brought a new language, Urdu, into existence. Archived from the original on 25 January Archived from the original on 11 March Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language. Clyne Ed. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
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Pakistan: Oxford University Press. Sridhar eds. One thousand languages: living, endangered, and lost. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 29 December Archived from the original on 2 July Volume Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 2 January Oxford University Press. Archived from the original PDF on 10 October Retrieved 7 October United States: Cambridge Univ Pr.
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Retrieved 13 August Archived from the original on 11 January Henry Blochmann English and Urdu dictionary, romanized 8 ed. Retrieved 6 July Oxford University John Thompson Platts Volume of Harvard College Library preservation microfilm program. Oxford University Ahmad, Rizwan. May , pp. Asher, R. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Azad, Muhammad Husain. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. Imam Ed. Bhatia, Tej K. Indo-Aryan and Hindi rev. Calcutta: Firma K. Dua, Hans R. In Asher, ; pp.
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Pakistani Urdu. Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan. Gumperz, J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Koul Urdu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Syed Maqsud Jamil 16 June Daily Star.
Kelkar, A. Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology. Poona: Deccan College. Khan, M. Sebeok Ed.